ELIZA Resources on the WWW

Last updated (and all links checked): 06 Oct 98

We shall look at the ELIZA program in more detail later in this tutorial. In the meantime, here is a collection of references to WWW resources for ELIZA, PARRY, Julia, and other 'conversational' programs and chatterbots.


The Loebner Prize -- "The First Turing Test"
"In 1990 Hugh Loebner agreed with The Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies to underwrite a contest designed to implement the Turing Test. Dr. Loebner pledged a Grand Prize of $100,000 and a Gold Medal (pictured above) for the first computer whose responses were indistinguishable from a human's. Each year an annual prize of $2000 and a bronze medal is awarded to the most human computer. The winner of the annual contest is the best entry relative to other entries that year, irrespective of how good it is in an absolute sense." (http://www.loebner.net/Prizef/loebner-prize.html)
"How to Pass the Turing Test by Cheating" by Jason L Hutchens
An extensive discussion of the Turing Test, with descriptions of ELIZA, PARRY, SHRDLU, PC Therapist, TIPS, and FRED. Includes transcripts of interactions.


Lessons from a Restricted Turing Test, by Stuart M. Shieber
Abstract: "We report on the recent Loebner prize competition inspired by Turing's test of intelligent behavior. The presentation covers the structure of the competition and the outcome of its first instantiation in an actual event, and an analysis of the purpose, design, and appropriateness of such a competition. We argue that the competition has no clear purpose, that its design prevents any useful outcome, and that such a competition is inappropriate given the current level of technology. We then speculate as to suitable alternatives to the Loebner prize." (http://www.eecs.harvard.edu/~shieber/papers/loebner-rev-html/loebner-rev-html.html)
"Wallowing in the Quagmire of Language: Artificial Intelligence, Psychiatry, and the Search for the Subject" by Phoebe Sengers
An intriguing and intelligent discussion of issue relating to AI and intelligent agents; focuses on the Turing Test, chatterbots, and Kenneth Colby's PARRY program. (http://english-server.hss.cmu.edu/Cultronix/sengers/)
How my program passed the Turing Test, by Mark Humphrys
Documents the evolution of an ELIZA-like program, MGonz. Includes sample dialogue. Many good links to Turing Test and ELIZA sites. (http://www.ed.ac.uk/~humphrys/eliza.html)
Some general, mostly techie, stuff on chatterbots. Well worth visiting this site. Home page at: (http://www.botspot.com/main.html). Also look at: Bot Brainz (http://www.rahul.net/natpix/iptin.html)
Bots Are Hot! by Andrew Leonard


The Simon Laven Page
This is a huge directory of chatterbots, classified by type. Here you will find classic programs such as ELIZA and Julia, as well as more modern variations such as Elvis and Hal. Also 'Chatterbot Chatrooms'. Highly recommended! (http://www.student.toplinks.com/hp/sjlaven/)
A Singapore-based implementation of the ELIZA program. (http://www-ai.ijs.si/eliza/eliza.html)
An implementation of the program in Java, by Charles Hayden of Bell Labs. (http://www.monmouth.com/~chayden/eliza/Eliza.html)
Another Java implementation, this one by Robert C. Goerlich. (http://philly.cyberloft.com/bgoerlic/eliza.htm)
So-called 'sister' of ELIZA and, like ELIZA, a Rogerian psychoterapist. (http://www.uib.no/People/hhiso/eliza.html)
An ELIZA-like chatterbot. (telnet://julia@fuzine.mt.cs.cmu.edu) Access via:


Links to the three chatterbots, MEGAHAL, HEX and SEPO, together with transcripts of previous conversations. Description of a new program, NonI. Downloadable MegaHAL. (http://ciips.ee.uwa.edu.au/~hutch/Hal.html)
Dr. Werner Wilhelm Webowitz: Web Quack Psychiatwist
ELIZA-like 'psychiatrist'. (http://www.parnasse.com/drwww.shtml)
ELIZA-like chat engine in Italian. Accessible at: (http://www.volftp.vol.it/IT/IT/ITALIANI/LENTINI/home_e.htm) and (http://www.cys.it/varie/eloisa/HTMLWRIT/MIRROR3/eloisa.htm)
Elmo, a MOO softbot
Elmo is based on Colin (developed by Michael Mauldin, father of Julia); he combines an inherited pattern-matching approach to user input with natural language processing. To converse with Elmo, telnet underdog.georgetown.edu 7777 and connect as a guest. When you are connected, type "page elmo.

... and finally ...

A self-assessment test on chatterbots and intelligent agents