Virtual history, virtual archaeology

"Why is the virtual reconstruction of an archaeological site so important? Because, over and above its strong popular impact, computer reconstruction allows the presentation of complex information in a visual way that enables it to be used to test and refine the image or model that has been created. It is very much more than a graphic reproduction; it is a simulation. And, because it is a simulation, it provides a non-intrusive and non-destructive means of exploring a model in three dimensions and from an infinite number of viewpoints. Furthermore, it allows objective verification to be made of possible interpretations of architecture, material culture, topography, palaeo-environmental data, restoration, museum display, and any number of other factors. This makes virtual reality a highly useful tool for enlarging our knowledge of a field that has hitherto been under-explored, perhaps because it is concerned with the past."
Maurizio Forte, Introduction to Virtual Archaeology. London: Thames & Hudson, 1997

Readings

Colin Renfrew, Virtual Archaeology. London: Thames & Hudson. 1997. ISBN: 0500050856. [Amazon]

Juan A Barceló, Maurizio Forte and Donald H Sanders (eds.), Virtual Reality in Archaeology. Oxford: Archaeopress. 2000. ISBN 1841710474. [Amazon]

Archaeological Data Visualization in VR: The ARCHAVE System
» http://graphics.cs.brown.edu/research/sciviz/archaeology/archave/
[Link verified and viewed, 19 Feb 2007]

Narushige Shiode & Wolfram Grajetzki, 'A Virtual Exploration of the Lost Labyrinth: Developing a Reconstructive Model of Hawara Labyrinth Pyramid Complex'
» http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/paper29.pdf
[Link verified and viewed, 14 Feb 2006]

Examples

On-A-Slant Virtual Village: Interactive X3D -- A Social Science Education Project
» http://onaslant.ndsu.edu/x3d.html
[Link updated and viewed, 22 Feb 2007]

Stonehenge (Viscape) (select views 4 and 5)
» http://www.gallica.co.uk/celts/stonehenge/shenge.htm
[Link verified and viewed, 22 Feb 2007]

Stonehenge (Viscape)
» http://openacademy.mindef.gov.sg/openacademy/Central/VR%20Files/VRT/stonehenge.SVR
[Link verified and viewed, 22 Feb 2007]

Stonehenge (Java3D)
» http://www.spheroview.com/port_stone_1.htm
Other panoramas from Spheroview can be accessed from:
» http://www.spheroview.com/port_menu.htm
[Link verified and viewed, 22 Feb 2007]

METIS: Ancient Greek Archaeological Sites (Panoramic VR / QTVR)
» http://www.stoa.org/metis/
[Link updated and viewed, 22 Feb 2007]

Megiddo (Viscape)
» http://www.tau.ac.il/humanities/archaeology/megiddo/megiddo3d.html
[Link verified and viewed, 22 Feb 2007]

Explore the Mary Rose (Viscape)
"The Mary Rose Resource for 7 - 11 year olds. Supporting KS2 Study Unit - Britain and the Wider World in Tudor Times."
» http://www.maryrose.org/explore/3dmodel/index.html
[Link verified and viewed, 19 March 2007]

A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust (QTVR)
QTVR tours of Auschwitz, Birkenau, Dachau, Oberer Kuhberg, Majdanek, Mauthausen, Treblinka, and numerous other concentration camps.
» http://fcit.usf.edu/Holocaust/resource/VR.htm
[Link verified and viewed, 28 Feb 2007]

Virtual Wroxeter Roman Fortress (Viscape)
» http://www.arch-ant.bham.ac.uk/bufau/research/bt/default.htm
[Link verified and viewed, 28 Feb 2007]

NOVA Online/Pyramids/Ancient Egypt (Panoramic VR)
» http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/explore/age.html
[Link verified and viewed, 22 Feb 2007]

Tudor Hackney Virtual Reality House (Viscape) (select view 2 and view 3)
» http://www.learningcurve.gov.uk/tudorhackney/index.asp
[Link verified and viewed, 22 Feb 2007]

Saint-Petersburg 300 (VRML)
A "multimedia multifunctional on-line environment dedicated to the history and today's life of Saint-Peterburg in front of its 300th anniversary on May 2003"
» http://www.300.ru/pages/page.phtml?id=1
[Link verified and viewed, 14 March 2005]

Shakespeare Birthplace Trust: Shakespeare's birthroom (Viscape)
» http://www.virtualexperience.co.uk/SBT/shakey.htm
[Link verified and viewed, 09 Feb 2005]

BBC Online - History (VRML & QTVR). Current exhibitions (03/10/00) are: Ironbridge, London Bridge, Medieval St. Edmund Abbey, Viking Age Farmhouse, Housestead's Roman Fort, World War One Trench.
» http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/multimedia_zone/3ds/index.shtml
[Link verified and viewed, 09 Feb 2005]

Fossils at the Natural History Museum (VRML & QTVR)
» VRML: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/interactive/vrml/index.html
» QTVR: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/virtual-wonders/
[Links updated and viewed, 23 Feb 2007]