HCI and Human Factors

"... the willing suspension of disbelief"

69 Optical Illusions & Visual Phenomena, by Michael Bach
» http://www.michaelbach.de/ot/


General readings:

Laurel, B. (1993). Computers as Theatre. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. [2nd edition]

Schutz, A. and Luckmann, T. (1974). The Structure of the Life-World. London: Heinneman.

A Sense of Presence

"presence [is] the subjective sense of being in the virtual place. Presence is observable when people interact in and with a virtual world as if they were there"
Schubert, T., Friedmann, F., & Regenbrecht, H. (1999). 'Embodied Presence in Virtual Environments'. In Ray Paton & Irene Neilson (Eds.), Visual Representations and Interpretations, pp. 268-278. London: Springer-Verlag.
» http://www.uni-jena.de/~sth/papers/vri98.pdf

Presence as realism

1. High-quality rendering of scenes and objects

  1. pseudo-naturalism / representational fidelity
  2. tokens / emblematic realism
  3. movable objects / manipulation of objects
  4. persistence of objects
  5. shared experience

2. Presence of avatars / movement

  1. adjusts / retains perspective
  2. collision detection
  3. interaction with objects
  4. real-world physics (objects should behave as in the real world)
  5. ambient sound / 3D sound /

Presence as immersion

  1. first-person perspective
  2. fast rendering
  3. fast response
  4. depth of vision
  5. "engagement"

Presence as social richness

1. Graphical richness
  1. representational fidelity

2. Multi-user
3. Avatars
  1. choice / customisability (WorldsAway, AW)

4. Support for communication
  1. text (WorldsAway, AW)
    • graphical conventions for text communication (e.g., emoticons, abbreviations)
    • :-) / {{{{{chris!}}}}} / afk, brb, c u
  2. voice (Onlive Traveler)
  3. paralinguistic and / or kinesic information (WorldsAway, AW)
    • actions -- choice? appropriateness?

Readings

Lombard, M. & Ditton, T. (1997). 'At the Heart of it All: The Concept of Presence'. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 3(2), September 1997.
» http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol3/issue2/lombard.html

Schubert, T., Friedmann, F., & Regenbrecht, H. (1999). 'Embodied Presence in Virtual Environments'. In Ray Paton & Irene Neilson (Eds.), Visual Representations and Interpretations, pp. 268-278. London: Springer-Verlag.
» http://www.uni-jena.de/~sth/papers/vri98.pdf

Hand, C. 'Other Faces of Virtual Reality'. ("By comparing computer use with the theatre some conclusions are drawn regarding the nature of immersion".)
» http://www.cms.dmu.ac.uk/~cph/Publications/other-vr.html

Vilhj·lmsson, H.H. (1997). 'Autonomous Communicative Behaviour in Avatars'.
» http://hannes.www.media.mit.edu/people/hannes/msthesis

Cassell, J.; Vilhj·lmsson, H. (1999) "Fully Embodied Conversational Avatars: Making Communicative Behaviors Autonomous." Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 2(1), p. 45-64.
» http://gn.www.media.mit.edu/groups/gn/publications/agents_journal99.pdf
Peter Murphy, Visual ecologies, optic flow and vr panoramas - some notes
» http://www.culture.com.au/virtual/optic.htm

PsychNology
"The term PsychNology results from the merge of two words, Psychology and Technology, and has been chosen in order to indicate the tight relationship connecting them. The virtual community that gathers under this name is interested in observing, analyzing and exploring technology from the vantage point of Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, Cognitive Science, Cultural Studies, Arts, Human Factors, Literature, Communication Studies, Education, History, Economy, Philosophy."
» http://www.psychnology.org/242.php
[Link verified and viewed, 13 Feb 2005]

Resources

» General
» Riva criteria
» Questionnaires. An extensive list of questionnaires from Presence-Research.org whose aim is "to offer up-to-date and relevant information and resources on (tele-)presence, i.e. the subjective experience of 'being there' in mediated environments such as virtual reality, simulators, cinema, television, etc."